Perfect concepts of Accounting? |

 What are the concepts of Accounting? | What are the concepts of Accounting?
    Following are the various concepts of Accounting
What are the concepts of Accounting?

Introduction of Concept of Accounting

    The term ‘concepts’ includes those basic assumptions or conditions upon which the science of accounting is based. The following are the important accounting concepts:
1. Separate Business Entity Concept
2. Going Concern Concept
3. Money Measurement Concept
4. Historical Cost Concept
5. Dual Aspect Concept
6. Accounting Period (Periodicity) Concept
7. Periodic Matching of Costs and Revenue Concept
8. Realization Concept

concepts of Accounting

1. Separate Business Entity Concept- Concept of Accounting

    In accounting business is taken into account to be a separate entity from the proprietor(s).
    It may seem to be ludicrous that one person will sell product to himself however this idea is extraordinarily useful keep business affairs strictly free from the result of personal affairs of the proprietor(s). Thus, once one person invests `10,000 into business, it’ll be deemed that the owner has only if abundant of cash to the business which can be shown as a ‘liability’ within the books of the business.
    In case the owner withdraws `2,000 from the business, it’ll be charged to him and also the web quantity owed by the business are shown solely as `8,000.
The conception of separate entity is applicable to all or any kinds of business organizations. for instance, just in case of a partnership business or sole proprietary business, the partners or sole owner aren’t thought of as separate entities within the eyes of law, except for accounting functions they’re going to be thought of as separate entities.concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting ?

2. Going Concern Concept-Concept of Accounting

    According to this idea it’s assumed that the business can continue for a reasonably  long time to come back. there’s neither the intention nor the need to liquidate the actual business venture within the predictable future. On account of this idea, the businessperson whereas valuing the assets doesn’t take under consideration sales agreement price of assets. Moreover, he charges depreciation on mounted assets on the premise of their expected lives instead of on their market price.
    It ought to be noted that the ‘going concern concept’ doesn’t imply permanent continuance of the enterprise. It rather presumes that the enterprise can continue operating long enough to charge against financial gain, the price of mounted assets over their helpful lives, to amortize over acceptable amount alternative
costs that are delayed underneath the particular or matching construct, to pay liabilities after they become due and to fulfill the written agreement commitments.
    Moreover, the construct applies to the business as an entire. once Associate in Nursing enterprise liquidates a branch or one phase of its operations, the power of the enterprise to continue as a going concern is often not impaired. The enterprise won’t be thought-about as a going concern once it’s gone into liquidation or it’s become insolvent. Of course, the receiver or the liquidator could endeavor to hold on business operations for a few amount unfinished arrangement with the creditors or the ultimate emptor for the sale of the business as a going concern, the going concern standing of the priority can stand terminated from the date of his appointment or are a minimum of considered suspended, unfinished the results of his efforts.concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

3. Money Measurement Concept Concept of Accounting

    Accounting records solely financial transactions. Events or transactions that can not be expressed in cash don’t notice place within the books of accounts tho’ they’ll be terribly helpful for the business. as an example, if a business possesses a team of dedicated and trusty workers, it’s positively Associate in Nursing quality to the business however since their financial mensuration isn’t doable, they’re not shown within the books of the business. mensuration of business event in cash helps in understanding the state of affairs of the business during a far better manner. as an example, if a business owns `10,000 of money, 600 kilogram of raw materials, two trucks, 1,000 sq. feet of building area etc., these amounts can not be supplementary along to provide a meaty total of what the business owns. However, if this stuff square measure expressed in financial terms like `10,000 of money, `12,000 of raw materials, `2,00,000 of trucks and `50,000 of building, all such things may be supplementary and far a lot of intelligible and precise estimate regarding the assets of the business are going to be out there.concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

4. Historical Cost Concept Concept of Accounting

    The thought is closely associated with going concern thought. per this thought: The thought is closely associated with going concern concept. per this concept: (a) associate degree plus is normally entered within the accounting records at the value paid to accumulate it, and (b) this price is that the basis for all sequent accounting for the assets. If a business buys a plot of land for `50,000, the plus would be recorded within the books at `50,000 although its value at that point happens to be `60,000. just in case a year later the value of this assets comes all the way down to `40,000, it’ll normally still be shown at `50,000 and not at `40,000. {the price|the value|the price} thought doesn’t mean that the plus can continuously be shown at cost. it’s additionally been expressed higher than that price becomes the premise for all future accounting for the plus. It implies that plus is recorded at price at the time of its purchase, however it’s going to consistently be reduced in its worth by charging depreciation. price thought has the advantage of transportation sound judgement within the preparation and presentation of monetary statements. within the absence of this idea the figures shown within the accounting records would have trusted the subjective views of an individual. However, on account of continuing inflationary tendencies the preparation of monetary statements on the premise of historical prices, has become mostly irrelevant  for deciding the monetary position of the business. this can be the explanation for the growing importance of inflation accounting.concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

5. Dual Aspect Concept Concept of Accounting

    Dual Aspect Concept this is often the essential idea of accounting. in step with this idea each business dealing includes a twin result. as an example, if A starts a business with a capital of `10,000, there ar 2 aspects of the dealing. On the one hand, the business has plus of `10,000 whereas on the opposite hand the business should pay to the man of affairs a add of `10,000 that is taken as proprietor’s capital. This expression are often shown within the style of following equation:
Capital (Equities) = money (Assets)
10,000 = 10,000
    The term ‘assets’ denotes the resources in hand by a business whereas the term “Equities” denotes the claims of assorted parties against the assets. As we’ve got learned before, equities ar of 2 varieties. They are: owners’ equity and outsiders’ equity. Owners’ equity (or capital) is that the claim of homeowners against the assets of the business whereas outsiders’ equity (for liabilities) is that the claim of out of doors parties, like creditors, debenture-holders etc., against the assets of the business. Since all assets of the business ar claimed by some one (either homeowners or outsiders), the overall of assets are adequate total of liabilities,
Thus: Equities = Assets or Liabilities + Capital = Assets
concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

6. Accounting Period (Periodicity) Concept Concept of Accounting

    Accounting amount (Periodicity) conception in step with this idea, the lifetime of the business is split into applicable phases for finding out the results shown by the business when every segment. this can be as a result of although the lifetime of the business is taken into account to be indefinite (according to going concern concept), the measuring of financial gain and finding out the monetary position of the business when a awfully long amount wouldn’t be useful in taking correct corrective steps at the suitable time. It is, therefore, completely necessary that when every phase or quantity the bourgeois should ‘stop’ and ‘see back’, however things area unit going. In accounting such a phase or quantity is termed ‘accounting period’. it’s typically of a year. At the top of every accounting amount associate financial statement and a record area unit ready. The financial statement discloses the profit or loss created by the business throughout the accounting amount whereas the record depicts the monetary position of the business as on the Judgment Day of the accounting amount. whereas getting ready these statements a correct distinction must be created between capital and revenue expenditure. concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

7. Periodic Matching of Costs and Revenue Concept Concept of Accounting

    Periodic Matching of prices and Revenue conception this can be supported the accounting amount conception. The preponderant objective of running a business is to earn profit. so as to establish the profit created by the business throughout a amount, it’s necessary that ‘revenues’ of the amount ought to be matched with the prices (expenses) of the amount. The term matching, means that applicable association of connected revenues and expenses. In alternative words, financial gain created by the business throughout a amount may be measured only if the revenue earned  throughout a amount is compared with the expenditure incurred for earning that revenue. The question once the payment was received or created is ‘irrelevant’. as an example, if a salesperson is paid commission in January, 2011, for sales created by him in December, 2010, the commission paid to the salesperson in January, 2011 ought to be taken because the value for sales created by him in December, 2010. this implies that revenues of December, 2010 (i.e., sales) ought to be matched with the prices incurred for earning that revenue (i.e., salesman’s commission) in December, 2010 (though paid in January, 2011). On account of this idea, changes area unit created for all outstanding expenses, accumulated incomes, paid expenses and honorary incomes, etc., whereas getting ready the ultimate accounts at the top of the accounting amount. this idea is additionally referred to as Accrual/cash conception. concepts of Accounting | What are the concepts of Accounting?

8. Realization Concept– concept of Accounting

    Realization idea in line with this idea revenue is recognized once a buying deal is formed. Sale is taken into account to be created at the purpose once the property in merchandise passes to the customer and he becomes wrongfully prone to pay. this could be understood with the assistance of the subsequent example: A places AN order with B for provide of bound merchandise nevertheless to be factory-made. On receipt of order, B purchases raw materials, employs employees, produces the products and delivers them to A. A makes payment on receipt of products. during this case the sale are going to be probable  to possess been created not at the time of receipt of the order for {the merchandise the products} however at the time once goods area unit delivered to A. However, there area unit bound exceptions to the present concept: (i) just in case of rent purchase the possession of the products passes to the customer only if the last instalment is paid, however sales area unit probable  to possess been created to the extent of instalments received and instalments outstanding (i.e. instalments due however not received). (ii) just in case of contracts accounts, although the contractor is prone to pay only if the full contract is completed as per terms of the contract, the profit is calculated on the idea of labor certified year when year as per bound accepted accounting norms. concepts of Accounting

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