Contribution in the co-operative movement
In this chapter we will discuss the contribution in the co-operative movement of India after independence i.e. Vaikunthbhai Mehta, Dr. Dhananjay Gadgil, Padmashri Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhepatil, Dr. We will study the contribution of Varghese Kurian and Karmaveer Bhausaheb Hire in the field of cooperation. We will also study the report of Gorwala Committee and Vaidyanathan Committee. In this chapter we will also review the development of cooperative movement in Maharashtra and the current status of cooperative movement in India.
Contribution of various individuals in the co-operative movement of India after independence
1) Contribution of Padmashri Vaikunthbhai Mehta in Cooperative Field (1891-1964)
2) Contribution of Dr. Dhananjay Gadgil in Co-operative Sector (1901-1971)
3) Contribution of Padmashri Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhepatil in Co-operative Sector (1897 -1980)
4) Contribution of Karmaveer Bhausaheb Here in Co-operative Sector (1905-1961)
5) Dr. Varghese Kurian’s Contribution to Cooperatives (1921-2012)
1) Contribution of Padmashri Vaikunthbhai Mehta to Co-operative Movement (1891-1964)
Padmashri Vaikunthbhai Mehta was born on October 23, 1891 in Ahmedabad. He did his education from New High School in Mumbai. He completed his college education from Elphinstone College Mumbai. He died on October 27, 1964.
2) Sahakar and Vaikunthbhai Mehta
Like his father, Vaikunthbhai Mehta was interested in co-operative movements. He served the Bombay State Cooperative for 34 years and played an important role in the rural reconstruction work of Bombay State. In 1947, he was appointed as Minister of Finance and Cooperation in the Kher Cabinet. In 1953, he was appointed as the President of the All India Khadi and Village Industries Board. He was a member of Banking Inquiry Committee of 1929, Textile Inquiry Committee of 1940 and 1953 etc. He was the Chairman of Farmers Cooperative Credit Commission in 1959. He was honored with Padma Bhushan in 1954.
3) Famous books
Vaikunthbhai Mehta wrote many books on cooperative movement and village industry. Some of those books are as follows:
1) Cooperative Movement (1915)
2) Cooperative Movement in India (1918)
3) Study of Co-operative Credit (1927)
4) Planning for Co-operative Movement (1941)
5) The Necessity of Village Industry (1963)
6) The Economics of Non-Violence (1963)
7) Decentralized Economic Development (1963)
4) Contribution to cooperative education and training
Vaikunthbhai Mehta’s contribution to cooperative education and training is significant. According to him, co-operative training is not only an essential but also a permanent condition in the co-operative programme. Vaikunthbhai Mehta was a true architect of the co-operative movement, a thinker and a prolific writer. He Dr. Padmashri for the establishment of Asia’s first cooperative sugar factory at Pravaranagar. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil was active and helpful. Due to his significant contribution to the co-operative movement, Dr. Vaikunthbhai Mehta has been named.
2) Contribution of Dr. Dhananjaya Rao Gadgil to the Co-operative Movement (1901-1971)
Dr. Dhananjairao Gadgil was born on April 10, 1901 in Nagpur. His contribution to the development of cooperative movement in Maharashtra is significant. He was a famous economist. Dr. To establish India’s first cooperative sugar factory at Pravaranagar in Maharashtra. Actively assisted Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil. He was the first president of this factory. He died on 3 May 1971.
2) Establishment of Gokhale Institute
Dr. Dhananjaya Rao Gadgil founded the Gokhale Institute of Economics in Pune, Maharashtra to conduct research to understand the rural economy, strengths and weaknesses of rural people, their concerns and expectations etc. During his directorship from 1930 to 1933, he undertook and completed various basic research projects. He combined research, experiment and experience to develop the cooperative sector. His contribution to cooperative credit institutions is significant.
3) Rural Credit Inspection Committee
Dr. Dhananjairao Gadgil was a member of the All India Rural Credit Inspection Committee appointed by the Reserve Bank of India. He was the Director of Reserve Bank of India from 1952 to 1962. Similarly, he was the Vice Chairman of the Planning Commission from 1967 to 1971.
3) Contribution of Padmashri Dr.Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil to Co-operative Movement
Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil was born on 12 August 1897 in Loni, a village in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. During the British rule, poor peasants did not have access to education. Yo Lik Dr. Since Vikhe Patil was from a poor farmer family, he could not get much education and had to accept his occupation of agriculture. During that time, the condition of the farmers was very miserable. He died on 27 April 1980.
2) Establishment of Co-operative Credit Fund
Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil started Loni Budruk Sahakari Patpedhi’ (Cooperative Credit Institution) in Loni in 1923. The institution is considered to be the first financial institution in Asia to be established on a cooperative basis. He then established several rural cooperative credit societies to provide finance to farmers.
3) Establishment of various co-operative societies
After establishing the Khedopadi Cooperative Credit Society as above, Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil established a co-operative society for the nomadic tribe in the village of Rajuri in 1929. Similarly, he established the Godavari Pravara Canal Trade Society. In 1944, he established an agricultural cooperative based on the cooperative principle.
4) Establishment of cooperative sugar factory
The farmer at that time was caught in the trap of landlords and moneylenders. Considering all the circumstances, Dr. Dhananjairao Gadgil, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Vaikunthbhai Mehta and others helped and in 1948 Asia’s first co-operative sugar factory was established at Pravaranagar in Ahmednagar district. Actual sugar production started in 1950. He made tireless efforts to build this factory. Famous economist Dhananjairao Gadgil got valuable help in building this factory. Gadgil was the first president of this cooperative sugar factory.
5) Establishment of many other co-operative societies with the encouragement of Dr. Vikhe Patil
After the establishment of this co-operative sugar factory, many co-operative factories and organizations were established by taking inspiration from it. These factories not only benefited the farmers but also transformed the area with the establishment of other industries and many institutions and factories came into being on co-operative basis.
6) Titles and Honours
Padmashri Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil has been awarded the title of Sahkar Maharshi for his work in the co-operative movement and other activities. In 1962, he was honored with the title of Padma Shri. Pune University awarded him D.Litt degree while Mahatma Phule Agricultural University awarded him Doctor of Science degree.
7) Other works
In 1964, he founded Pravara Rural Education Institute. In August 1964, he established Pravara Public School and in 1969, Pravara Kanya Vidya Mandir. Padmashri Vikhe Patil College of Arts, Science and Commerce was established in 1971. These institutions brought school and college education to the village children. Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil was a co-operative Maharishi in true sense.
4) Contribution of Karmaveer Bhausaheb Hire to Cooperative Movement (1905-1961)
Karmaveer Bhausaheb Hire is a resplendent personality in social, political, educational and cooperative fields. Karmaveer Bhausaheb Hire was born on March 1, 1905 in Nashik. Maharashtra is referred to as the land of saints, yogis, patriots and great social reformers. Bhaurao Hire is one of them. He strongly believed in social service and hence he is called Karmaveer. Karmaveer Bhausaheb Hire died on 6 November 1961.
He also failed to understand that development is not possible without co-operation and hence he participated in co-operative movement and many banks, co-operative credit societies and co-operative development boards were established.
Bhausaheb Hire was a follower of Gandhiji, Vinobaji and Jawaharlal Nehru. He participated in Satyagraha. He started a literacy campaign in Malegaon, Maharashtra. He started the first school with boarding facilities for the nomadic tribe at Saundane.
He was convinced that only education would make it possible to uplift the masses. He established many educational institutions.
Bhausaheb Hire formed a marketing association at the taluka level and created a union of such organizations at the district level. In 1956, he established the Nashik District Central Co-operative Bank. His important contribution in the field of cooperatives was the establishment of the Girna Cooperative Sugar Factory at Dabhadi in 1956.
5) Dr. Varghese Kurian’s Contribution to Cooperatives (1921-2012)
The contribution of many has been very important in the development of the cooperative movement in India. One of the important personalities is Dr. Varghese Kurian was. He was a great co-operative leader who used the co-operative principle in milk production and is credited with revolutionizing milk production in India. Dr Varghese Kurian was born on 26 November 1921 and died on 9 September 2012.
2) Varghese Kurian and Amul
Arrived at Anand in Gujarat on May 11, 1949 to complete the contract period for an educational scholarship awarded to Varghese Kurian by the government. Dr. Varghese Kurian along with Mr. Tribhuvandas Patel started developing cooperatives in Kheda district. The function of this cooperative was to collect milk from the farmers and pay them the amount of milk according to the quality of their milk. Mr. Kurien was looking for a name that everyone could pronounce and would help the team grow. The quality control officer suggested the name Amulya. This word is derived from Sanskrit and means precious. Later the name was changed to Amul to make the union part of them i.e. Anand Milk Union Ltd. (AMUL)]
3) Creation of cooperative model
Amul established several cooperative societies for clusters of villages. The job of these cooperatives was to collect milk twice a day from the farmers in the village. Farmers were paid according to the fat content of the milk. Steps like fat counting machine, sudden supervision, farmer education etc. were taken to avoid malpractices and increase efficiency of the overall process.Mr. Kurian and Shri. Patel had planned the marketing route himself. Due to which the cooperative system was running smoothly and developing it. By the late 1960s, Amul had become a model of industry success.
4) Operation Flood-Dhawal Kranti
In 1964, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri was invited to inaugurate a plant in Amul. Lal Bahadur Shastri Dr. Visited almost all cooperatives with Kurian. After returning to Delhi, he asked to implement milk projects all over the world on the lines of Anand. It was from this effort that the National Dairy Development Board was formed in 1965. In 1969, the President of the World Bank visited India. The World Bank sanctioned the loan without any condition.Mr. Kurien started processing milk to produce milk powder and many other dairy products. In 1973, he founded the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Association and through it started marketing of milk and milk products throughout the country as well as abroad.
5) Establishment of Rural Management Institute
Another important contribution of Dr. Kurian to the cooperative movement was the establishment of the Rural Management Institute at Anand. Arrangements are made to provide trained and qualified managers to maintain rural industries through training. This was the first attempt in the country to commercialize rural cooperatives. Considering all the above factors it is hard to believe that only one person can transform a home business into a large dairy enterprise.